It can be divided according to the feed type into powder, dough-like, broken granular, biscuit-like, granular, and micro-feed. Granulated feed can also be divided into hard pellet feed and soft pellet feed. You can divide floating feed into semi floating, sinking and floating feeds depending on the feed’s water content. You can divide feed into full price feed or concentrated feed. Premix feed additives, additives feed and premix feed are all possible depending on the nutritional content. You can also divide fish fry feed, fish fry feed, and adult fish feed according to the culture object.
The main types of are classified according to their morphological classification
- Powder feed: flour feed involves smashing raw materials to a certain degree and then mixing it evenly. There are four types of powder: pate, minced and dough. This is due to the differences in water content. Powder feed can be used for fish fry, small fish, and fish that eat plankton. Powdered feed can then be mixed with starch, oil spray and feed adhesives. It can also be kneaded or minced for fish such as shrimp, crab, eel and soft shelled turtles.
- Granular feed isfeed that has been first crushed or mixed well. After this, you will need to fully mix the ingredients and add water and other additives. The extruded pellet fish feed can be made using an ordinary fish feed pellet mill without any extrusion function.
Granular feed is the granular feed that is processed by granular machines. It can be broken down into the following:
- Hard pellet feed: The moisture content of molded feed was below 13% and the particle density was higher than 1.3g/m3. This is sinking fish food. The steam conditioning is higher than 80. It has a diameter of 18mm and a length that is 12 more than its diameter. It can be used for salmon, trout and black carp.
- Soft pellet feed: The moisture content of the forming feed is 20% to 30%, with a particle density of 11.3 g/cm3, diameter 18 mm, and shapes such as noodles or granular food. The molding process does not require steam. However, you will need to add 40 – 50% water and dry dehydration following forming. This feed is preferred by many species of aquaculture in China, including herbivorous, carnivorous, or omnivorous carnivorous fish. It has a high water content and easy mildew deterioration. It is also difficult to transport and store. It can be made at home, and used when needed.
- Micro pellet feed: These micro pellets have a diameter of less than 500 microns. They are used to replace plankton (also known as artificial plankton). The shellfish, crabs, and larvae that have just been hatched can be raised.
- Expanded pellet feed is: After forming, the moisture content of the pellet feed is lower than that of hard pellet feed. The particle density is approximately 0.6 g/cm3. This is floating fish feed. It can float on water for 12-24 hours without dissolution and loss of nutrient. It is used mainly in Japan to raise fish, lion fish, and sea bream kam. It can be used to raise catfish, shrimps and tilapia.
Two types of aquafeed processing technology can be used in aquafeed pellet production: pelleted and extruded aquafeed. Pellets made by extrusion have more benefits than pelleting.
Here are some things to keep in mind when making your fish feed
- Feed formula must meet the nutritional requirements of farmed fish. This is the first principle in designing feed formula. Because of the differences in breeds, lifestyles, water quality, and weight, there are many nutrients that fish require. Formula must meet their requirements for energy and protein to ensure they have the best quality. The second is to focus on the content ratio of amino acids and feed protein, in order to meet nutritional standards. Last, we must consider the characteristics and function of the digestive tract in fish. Because the digestive tract in fish is primitive and simple, it can be difficult to absorb and digest crude fiber.
- Pay attention to palatability and digestibility. Different fish require different feeds based on their digestive characteristics, feeding habits, and hobbies. Blood meal protein can contain up to 83.3% but only 19.3% digestible protein. Meat and bone meal protein were only 48.6% but due to the digestion rate of 75% digestible protein was 36.5%. This is twice as much blood meal powder. Poor palatability and waste of feed may result from inadequate food intake due to rapeseed cakes’ poor taste.
- To achieve nutritional standards, balance the amino acids and protein in formulation.
- To reduce the cost of raw material: In addition to the nutritional characteristics, economic factors must be considered. It is important to match one measure to local conditions in order to reap maximum economic benefits. Floating catfish feed pellet production has been the most popular option for fish farmers in Nigeria to reduce input costs.
- Make sure to use the appropriate additives. The main raw material for self-made feeds is animal and plant raw materials. To improve nutrition and feed efficiency, you should also consider mixed vitamin and mineral salts, attractants, adhesives, and other additives.