Fish Feed Development in the United States

The United States is in a great location. It faces the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The coast extends up to 22,680 km, and marine fishing covers 762 million kilometers. The country’s annual output of aquatic products amounts to 600 million tonnes. 98% of this is marine fishing. There are hundreds of types of fish such as tuna and COD. Aquatic products are a popular choice for Americans who have high levels of demand for seafood. There are currently 2660 aqua products wholesale markets in the United States with 12,800 employees. There are 1913 aqua products processing factories with 77,000 employees and 549 cannery enterprises. The United States’ fish feed industry is not content to play second fiddle.

The United States’ main species of cultured fish are the following:

The pillar of the industry is Ictalurus punctatus production. It is mainly produced in mudponds, with most concentrations in the southeast United States, Louisiana and Arkansas, Mississippi, Mississippi, Alabama, and Mississippi. Catfish production has increased steadily since the 1980s. However, the high cost of feed, and fierce competition from frozen fish products from Asia, led to a 22% decrease in catfish production in the past year. Rainbow trout aquaculture can be found all over the country, though it is mainly located in the northwest state of Idaho. In the northeast coast waters, Atlantic salmon has been producing around 15,000 tons annually for the past ten year. Ictiobus Cyprinellus Valenciennes, a large freshwater fish from North America, is Ictiobus Cyprinellus Valenciennes. It is used in many countries around the globe as a replacement for common carp. The environment is between 0 and 42oC for this species, with a lot of prey zooplankton as well as some zoobenthos. Artificial breeding has allowed the Ictiobus CyprinellusValenciennes to eat any type of commercial feed. The bait coefficient was only 1. They reach sexual maturity 2-3 years later. The maximum weight is 36.3 kg, and the yield can be up to 7,700 kilograms/ha.

The United States has a relatively low number of aquatic products compared to other countries. Its annual output value is approximately $50 billion. Catfish, salmon and oysters are the most popular fish species in the United States. Economic development is key to aquaculture development. This is especially true for producers from low-wage countries and those with limited resources. About half of American seafood is imported to satisfy domestic demand.

How American feed manufacturers can reduce the cost of producing fish feed

Although feed prices are rising, many farmers believe that the trend towards low-profit operations cannot be stopped. Even small- and medium-sized feed businesses were forced to cease production in the last year. It is possible to find the reason for this increase in raw material prices, increased labor costs and other ancillary cost, product homogeneity, increasing competition, etc. It is important to remove uncontrollable variables. Some feed enterprises have reduced production costs. KimKoch is a professor at the United States of North Dakota State University. He has been devoted to feed processing technology, equipment research, supervision division of food production management, design, and implementation of livestock feed. He provided detailed information on how the United States feed companies can reduce losses and save money in the production process. There is plenty of reference.

1. Receiving raw material

The first step in feed production is raw material receiving. It is an essential process that ensures product quality and continuity. Material receiving capacity should be sufficient to meet the needs of the production. It must also use modern technology and equipment for timely receipt of raw materials, which will reduce labor intensity, save energy, and protect the environment.

Live feed: Includes live bait as well as frozen or dried biological bait. Brine shrimps, small shrimps, insects, small shrimps, small earthworms, small shrimps, and silkworm chrysalis are all examples of live bait. These baits are not suitable to be used with ornamental fish. 

Artificial feed: Fishmeal, wheat bran and soybean meal.

2. Technology crushing

There are currently two types of mills in America: the hammer mill or roller mill. The most common type is the hammer mill. It can be divided into a half-screen type or full screen type. While most hammermills are vertically rotated, there is a small part that is horizontal. Their working principle is the same, but horizontal rotation requires more power. Depending on the number of rollers, a roller mill can be divided into single rolls, double rolls, three rolls, four rolls, and four rolls. Combining hammer mill with roller mill will result in higher efficiency. However, it is not necessary that the particle size be smaller than the other rolls. Different materials, such as grains, seeds, beans, and fiber, have different grinding degrees. This means that different animals have different requirements regarding the size of the material. The requirements for sow feed particle size are 600 1000mm. Manufacturers should consider the requirements of different animal feeds to crush the material. This principle is conducive for animal digestion and absorption.

3. Mixing technology

The United States feed factories rely heavily on mechanical mixing for their purpose. Professor KimKoch introduces foreign mainstream mixed machinery. The mainstay in feed factories is the horizontal spiral ribbon mixer. It can be divided into biaxial and single axis. Because of its high mixing speed, high mixing efficiency and uniformity, the horizontal mixer is popular in large feed manufacturing. Fast mixing speeds are the main advantage of the horizontal biaxial mixed leaf machine. The mixing time is short, which results in a low mixing power per unit yield. The model of the mixing uniformity coefficient variation is lower than 5%. This means that the maximum liquid volume can be increased up to 20%. Full coefficient can be adjusted between 0.4 and 0.8.

4. Granulating is a process

Professor KimKoch stressed material moisture content as well as vapor saturation during the granulation process. KimKoch believes that 20% is the ideal material moisture content, and no less than 17% is acceptable. The higher the saturated steam, the better. However, due to the limitations of objective conditions, it is best to have a saturation control of at least 80%. There are two types of fish feed extruders for granulating: dry type fish food extruder and wet fish feed extruder. The main difference is that the dry type fish feed extruder doesn’t require a steam boiler. Because the material is properly ripened and mixed in the conditioner, the wet type fish pellet machine produces a feed pellet that is smoother and has better quality.

5. Transport and storage

The Pellet Durability Index PDI is an important indicator of pellet feed quality. It can be used to determine the relative capability of pellets during transport and conveying. The higher the PDI, better the pellet quality and the greater the feed utilization rate. Professor KimKoch also highlighted the issue of moldy feed. He suggested that the feed bin must be controlled for moisture (such as the moisture levels of corn grain classes and cake). The relative humidity should not exceed 70%, and the temperature should not exceed 10. To prevent the spread of aflatoxin, any feed containing it must be removed immediately.

There are three things you can do to lower the cost of feed. First, complete all steps of feed production so that there is no waste. Second, ensure production effectiveness and no additional losses. Third, ensure production machinery is effective by having a variety production data.

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